Differential Geometry
GRADUATE STUDY IN DIFFERENTIAL GEOMETRY at NOTRE DAME
The striking feature of modern Differential Geometry is its breadth, which touches so much of mathematics and theoretical physics, and the wide array of techniques it uses from areas as diverse as ordinary and partial differential equations, complex and harmonic analysis, operator theory, topology, ergodic theory, Lie groups, nonlinear analysis and dynamical systems. Research at Notre Dame covers the following areas at the forefront of current work in geometric analysis and its applications.
1. Geodesics, minimal surfaces and constant mean curvature surfaces.
The global structure of a space may be investigated by the extensive use of geodesics, minimal surfaces and surfaces of constant mean curvature; such surfaces are themselves of physical interest (membranes, soap films and soap bubbles). An important problem in the area is the determination of conditions on a compact Riemannian space which ensure the existence of infinitely many geometrically distinct closed geodesics. We have proved this for compact Riemannian spaces with positively pinched curvature and in another direction established that if two compact surfaces of negative curvature and finite area have the same length data for marked closed geodesics then the two surfaces must be isometric. Our research on minimal surfaces has produced a series of outstanding results on what have long been recognized as crucial problems for the theory. These include the first breakthrough to finiteness in the extension of the classical Bernstein Theorem, the recent proof of the uniqueness of the helicoid as the only nonflat complete embedded simplyconnected minimal surface in 3space, and the first solution of the free boundary problem for polyhedral surfaces, the prototype for Jost’s Theorem. Our farreaching generalization of the classical work of Delaunay classified all complete constant mean curvature surfaces admitting a oneparameter group of isometries; the new infinite families of such surfaces generated by this work are currently of interest in other areas of surface theory.
2. Classical surface theory.
Classical surface theory is the study of isometric immersions of surfaces into Euclidean 3space. In this study the umbilic points have a special significance (both topologically and geometrically) and the Caratheodory conjecture of eighty years standing is one of the most resistant of problems in this area. Beginning with a generic geometric solution to this conjecture and the establishing of a remarkable connection with the theory of compressible plane fluid flow, we have made profound contributions to our understanding of this phenomenon, so that these purely mathematical results are now being applied to the solution of fundamental problems in the theory of relativity. Our work is an integral part of Rozoy’s celebrated solution of the Lichnerowicz Conjecture that a static stellar model of a (topological) ball of perfect fluid in an otherwise vacuous universe must be spherically symmetric; this includes, as a special case, Israel’s theorem that static vacuum blackhole solutions of Einstein’s equations are spherically symmetric, i.e., Schwarzschild solutions.
3. Complex geometry and analysis on noncompact manifolds.
Our work in complex geometry includes the affirmative solution of the Bochner Conjecture on the Euler number of ample Kaehler manifolds, a solution of Bloch’s Conjecture (on the degeneracy of holomorphic curves in subvarieties of abelian varieties) and the classification of complex surfaces of positive bisectional curvature. Our current research on this area focuses on complex manifolds with nonpositive curvature, exhibiting various manifestations of hyperbolicity and parabolicity. Much of the progress in Riemannian geometry that took place over the last decades has been made via the use of deep analytic techniques on noncompact manifolds. The central object of study is the Laplace operator, acting on functions and on differential forms. Our work on the spectral theory of the Laplacian uses techniques from quantum mechanical scattering theory. A recent example has been one proof that the Laplacian of the 4dimensional hyperbolic space is rigid, in the Hilbert space sense. Probabilistic methods, coming from the theory of Brownian motion, have also been used with success in our discovery of a new family of Liouville manifolds having a positive lower bound for the Laplacian spectrum; these manifolds provided counterexamples to a conjecture of Schoen and Yau on Liouville manifolds. Another recent accomplishment in the study of Laplace operators has been a vanishing theorem for $ L^2$ cohomology and its applications, via index theory, to the Euler number of nonpositively curved compact Kaehler manifolds.
4. Geometric analysis via Gromov’s methods.
Over the last thirty years Gromov has made important contributions to diverse areas of mathematics and pioneered new directions in mathematics such as filling Riemannian geometry, almost flat manifolds, wordhyperbolic groups, Carnot geometry and applications to the rigidity of symmetric spaces, to name but a few. Our work on geometric analysis via Gromov’s approaches includes an affirmative solution to Gromov’s minimal volume gap conjecture for compact manifolds of nonpositive curvature, isoperimetric inequalities on singular spaces of nonpositive curvature and the study of harmonic functions on noncompact spaces with Gromov’s hyperbolicity.
5. Spaces of positive scalar curvature.
In the past ten years it has been observed that there are profound connections between the existence of metrics with positive scalar curvature on a given compact space and the topological structure of the space. An outstanding problem in this area is the existence of metrics of positive scalar curvature on compact spin manifolds. GromovLawson conjectured that any compact simplyconnected spin manifold with vanishing $\hat A$ genus must admit a metric of positive scalar curvature. The expert in this area at Notre Dame successfully solved this important problem by a detailed study of positive scalar curvature metrics on quaternionic fibrations over compact manifolds. In addition, our researchers have been interested in the study of metrics of positive scalar curvature on certain compact manifolds such as exotic spheres. It has also been found that the topological Ktheory is closely related to the study of manifolds with nonpositive sectional curvature.
Faculty Members 
Research Interests 

Karsten Grove  Differential Geometry and Topology 
Matthew Gursky  Differential Geometry and Partial Differential Equations 
Brian C. Hall  Mathematical Physics and Complex Analysis 
Qing Han  Partial Differential Equations and Differential Geometry 
Richard K. Hind  Differential Geometry 
Gerard Misiolek  Global Analysis, Partial Differential Equations 
Liviu Nicolaescu  Topology and Probability 
Marco Radeschi  Differential Geometry 
Stephan A. Stolz  
Gabor Szekelyhidi  Complex and Partial Differential Geometry 
Emeritus Faculty 

Alan Howard  
Brian B. Smyth  Differential Geometry 
Nancy K. Stanton  Complex Geometry, Several Complex Variables and Partial Differential Equations 
Frederico J. Xavier  Differential Geometry and Geometric Analysis 